The new function and terminus of Darwin¡¯s theory 

By Dongsheng Zhang



People often think that Darwin was opposed to the Creationism when he found his theory of human origin, which resulted in dramatic changes in human society. The opposition aroused the two sides¡¯ investments involved a lot of human and material resources to the study of the human origins through identification of the types of evidences, which indeed makes human biology and technology has been developing rapidly. That started from digging the earth to search for ancient fossils, and comparative analysis of the anatomy of live things, up to now, developed sequence analysis of the genomic DNA sequence between humankind and chimpanzees.


The last claim of Darwin¡¯s theory is: the differences among species in the genomic DNA sequence is the core essence which determines  all the differences between species. In other words, all unique biological characteristics of living things are determined by its unique genomic DNA sequence. Inadvertently, this theory brought a new challenge to Darwin¡¯s theory. When new species¡¯ genomic DNA sequence formed from existing species¡¯ genomic DNA, such as chimpanzees, the process of how the making of its 24 (or pair) chromosome into human genomic DNA sequence in 23 (or pair) chromosomes, is the key power to the lead of the birth of mankind. The difference between chimp and human genome DNA sequence is 1.2% to 1.5%. From ordinary mathematical and statistical point of view, this difference in quality is negligible, or can be ignored. However, from a biological perspective, the difference between man and chimpanzee is so ¡°great¡±, cannot be ignored at all.  To Darwin¡¯s theory, the change of 1.5% in DNA sequence is not difficult to explain.  The ¡°a long time¡± had accomplished the whole processes. If thousands of years are not enough, then millions of years should be enough; then hundreds million years should even be more perfect. Adding a few "zeroes" is not problem, it is just a way of how people say it. The real problem of the ¡°long time¡± is so ¡°easily¡± solved.

Creationism has faced the problem of lacking more details of the creative process that human beings are able to understand, since it was completed in the past. There is no chance to repeat it for mankind to see. This ¡°black box¡± seems to be a ¡°blurring¡± that failed to meet the modern human thirst for knowledge and a strong desire, but also to give people the impression of boundless imagination. Under such circumstances, any other new ¡°theory¡± could temporarily satisfy the people¡¯s strong desire. It is reasonable. Darwin¡¯s theory emerged and quickly spread, even being used to vent on the ¡°Genesis¡± unsatisfactory. In fact, the core course of Darwin¡¯s theory is: evolution was driven by the ¡°unknown¡± natural factors during the past few millions of years; the mankind cannot see a recurrence yet.  But this is called a ¡°clear¡± ¡°black box¡±, which seems completely different from creationism, the ¡°vague¡± ¡°black box. If thousands years is not enough ¡°clear¡±, millions years should be enough, the hundreds million years should be more perfect. And it also left an unlimited room for imagination.

So far, the scientists have to focus on two key points to find the truth of human origin: first, what factors made the chimpanzee¡¯s 24 (or pair) chromosomes into human 23 (or pair) chromosomes; the second is what made the chimp genomic DNA sequence changing 1.5%, resulting in the birth of mankind. Darwin¡¯s theory only uses ¡°hundreds-millions years¡± to explain it which seems to have failed to meet the strong desire of mankind.  It seems not better or reasonable than the Creationism God¡¯s ¡°wisdom¡± participation in particular change between chimpanzee and humankind.

From the above figures, we can see that Darwin's theory has not overstepped any essences more than the Creationism. But he indeed pointed out a great pathway to explore the origins of mankind in details. The way is through the development of biological techniques to study biology itself, rather than ¡°God¡±.


Where is the way Darwin¡¯s theory pointed out going to lead? Where is the final destination or terminus?  It is still unknown. But I am willing try to discover the mystery, through the analysis of the ¡°number¡± of chromosomes and the structure of DNA molecule in the next few pages.


First, in a way the scientists found that the primary difference between chimp and human are concentrated in 24 chromosomes of the chimpanzee and the 23 chromosomes of human. It is so obvious, the number ¡°24¡± and ¡°23¡±, which means that the ¡°transitional species¡± or ¡°ape man¡± or chimpanzee¡¯s 24 chromosomes was merged into 23, not 22, 21 or 25, 26, was the most key point in finding the origin of humankind. Who can exactly and reasonably explain the details of the step 24 into 23? Is Darwin¡¯s theory or the Creationism or both?

Darwin¡¯s theories say, the natural factors did it during the past hundreds million years. But nobody can answer what factor and how and when did it. So it not is the final answer. But I think the Creationism is right. Why? What are the evidences? 

Let us read the sentences in the Bible Genesis: ¡°And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof¡± (Genesis 2:21). The literal meaning of this sentence: the world¡¯s first ¡°modern human¡± formed by a ¡°transformation¡±, from with 24 ¡°ribs¡± into with 23 ¡°ribs¡±, since then, the first generation ancestor of the human world has started. The words in Bible are not the only answer in biology, but also involve the most difficult of biological point: the origin and evolution of mankind. The initial Adam¡¯s one ¡°rib¡± were removed from his 24 ¡°ribs¡± and changed into 23 (not 22, 21 or 25, 26) by God, then the new Adam with 23 ¡°ribs¡± becomes the beginner of a modern human history. Bible readers often feel confused of why God removed the ¡°rib¡± from Adam rather than took other ¡°bones¡± to create Eve. Just because only the number of ribs is 24 in the human body, so the word ¡°rib¡± was alluding to the number ¡°24¡±. After the removal of one rib, the number has changed from 24 to the number ¡°23¡±. Compare with chimpanzee, the rib number of both chimpanzee and human are still 24, but in human body the chromosome¡¯s number indeed are 23 (or pair) which is 1 fewer than chimpanzee¡¯s 24. The story in the Bible implied the simple process of human chromosomes from 24 changing to 23, and answered who did it. See the illustrations and detailed analysis in article (in Chinese) ¡°Inspiration found in the Bible under the microscope? (1)¡± (http://xkxy.org).


Table 1. The number of ribs and chromosomes




Transitional Species?


Number of ribs


24 ?


Number of chromosomes in sperm or egg


24 ? or 23 ?

or  23.8 ? ¡­  23.6 ? ¡­ 23.2 ? ¡­  23.1 ?




Second, on the pragmatic way scientists have discovered: in the chromosomes genomic DNA encoding all the biological human characteristics, including the basic structure of the human body. DNA molecular structure and function is the core material of life, which was the ¡°general drawings¡±, also known as the ¡°blueprint¡± during the origin of humankind.  The blueprint was possessed within each individual cell. Biologists first found the blueprint is drawing by four-kinds of nucleotides, then found that the four nucleotides linked together, derived such connections which form a right-handed double-helix structure. Found four kinds nucleotide sequence is formed by linking specifically, it was known as ¡°gene¡±.  In recent years, 70 kinds of cell protein (enzyme) formation of the ¡°Cooperation¡±, participation of the duplication, reading and translation of the blueprints which directing the multitude of proteins to building ¡°construction¡± has been found that transferring of the ¡°information¡± into ¡°entity¡±.  The human DNA is right-handed double helical molecule that composed by four kinds of nucleotides encoding the human biological body.

It is surprising that the great discovery  (More than 20 scientists won the Nobel prize) is bring us back to the Bible Ezekiel book: ¡°a Whirlwind came out of the north, ... Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures   ... they had the likeness of a man¡± (KJV, Ezekiel 1:4-5). The literal meaning is very clear, a right-helix shape of objects, there are four activities things that can constitute human form. Clearly the sentence was not the description of the natural scenery. But this matches exactly with the biological discovery mentioned before: ¡°The human DNA is right-handed double helical molecule that composed by four kinds of nucleotides encoding the human biological body¡±. From the text of Ezekiel can very clearly see the characteristics of four nucleotides and DNA molecule. He described the DNA ¡°double-helix¡± structure as a ¡°whirlwind¡±;  ¡°from the North¡± represents spiral in the direction of right-handed; Description of the four nucleotides molecules into ¡°four live creatures¡±; and described DNA molecules encoding human structure as the formation of shape of man. See the illustrations and detailed analysis in articles ¡°The Concordance of Ezekiel's Vision with DNA¡±, ¡°Ezekiel Code with DNA Molecule: Fifteen Similarities¡± and article (in Chinese) ¡°Inspiration found in the Bible under the microscope? (6)¡±. (http://xkxy.org).



The ¡°whirlwind from north¡± and ¡°right-handed helix DNA": (a)    The image in Ezekiel¡®s Vision: A whirlwind coming out of the north and in the center was what looked like four living creatures their form was that of a man.  (b) Human chromosome and a right-handed double helix DNA made from four nucleotides A-T-C-G that encoding human biological body and basic emotion. (c) The X-ray diffraction photograph of DNA taken by a scientist Franklin in 1953. (d) Obviously double helix DNA is a real ¡°twister¡±.


Table 2:  DNA molecule in different ¡°languages¡±



Chapter: Verse

Ezekiel Code (KJV, in metaphor words)

Annotate (in common words)

DNA molecule (in biological terminological words)



a whirlwind came out of the north, ¡­ Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures ¡­   they had the likeness of a man.

Overview of the thing included four characters

DNA, the right-handed double helical molecule that composed by four kinds of nucleotides encoding the human biological body.




Helix thing

Double helical long-chain



came out of the north

Tornado spin direction is right-handed helical on north hemisphere

DNA spin direction is right-handed helical



a fire infolding itself

Energy releasing

Energy releasing are necessary when enzymes working on DNA



colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire.

Thing emits strong white light

Magnesium in enzymes. Strong white light as burning reaction of magnesium.



four living creatures

only four things there

There are only four kinds of nucleotides in DNA



the likeness of a man.

Constituting the form of mankind

DNA information encoding the human biological body



four faces

Four structure as identity card

Four nitrogenous base are nucleotides¡¯ identity in DNA




Expanding things from body to outside

Chemical bonds between nucleotides



calf's foot: and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass.

Yellow material

A phosphate in phosphate acid in each nucleotide. Crystal phosphate is yellow.



they had the hands

There are five-structure thing in

A deoxyribose (five-carbon structure) in each nucleotide



Their wings were joined one to another;

Linker between things

The chemical bonds between the phosphates and the sugars to form sugar-phosphate backbone for linking one nucleotide to the next in the DNA strand



four faces: man, lion, ox ,eagle

Four individual¡¯s identities

Four nitrogenous base as nucleotides¡¯ identity in DNA: adenine (A), thymine (T), Cytosine (C) and gunine (G)



Face of ox

Close related on calf

Cytosine was first discovered in 1894 from calf thymus tissues.



Face of eagle

Close related on birds

The first isolation of guanine was in 1844 from birds



 two wings covered their bodies.

Expanding things for cover, protection, maintain its main structures

Hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides (A-T, C-G), responsible for establishing and preserving DNA¡¯s special structure and functions, such as, 1. The bases are largely buried in the interior of the DNA and are kept away from water. 2. Two chains are held together to form double helix. 3. Hydrogen bonds of complementary nucleotides, A-T (two bonds), C-G (three bonds), assure the proper sequence of each daughter DNA strand during DNA replication (semiconservative model of replication). It was very appropriate that the three special functions of the hydrogen bonds were summarized as ¡°covering its body¡±.



And they went every one straight forward: whither the spirit was to go, they went; and they turned not when they went.

fixation of the direction following the guide

nucleotides link in 5¡¯¡ª3¡¯ or 3¡¯¡ª5¡¯ direction in DNA



living creatures, their appearance was like burning coals of fire, and like the appearance of lamps:

Four things carry high energy than common status

Deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP), with more energy than Deoxynucleoside monophosphate (dNMP)



it went up and down among the living creatures

Energy transferring among them

Energy of dNTP are transferred from ATP



out of the fire went forth lightning.

Soon extinguish after movement

When dNTP are assembled into DNA the energy released



the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning

Movement very much fast and there are a lot

3 billions nucleotides needed during a DNA molecule formed, 50 nucleotides per second



living creatures, behold one wheel

Together with ring-shape thing

Ring-shape proteins working on nucleotides



the colour of a beryl:





a wheel in the middle of a wheel.

Multiple wheel shape things combine together

ring-shape protein with multiple subunits  together



When they went, they went upon their four sides: and they turned not when they went.

Same with 17

Same with 17



their rings, they were so high that they were dreadful;

Very bigger than living things

Multiple subunits ring-shape proteins is larger than nucleotides



their rings were full of eyes round about them four

With very complex structure on it

Multiple subunits ring-shape proteins are very complex structure with binding sites



when the living creatures went, the wheels went by them: living creatures were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up

Activation must be together, depended each other

Structural of helicases has been identified to assemble into multisubunit ring-shaped hexamers. In most, hexamer formation requires nucleotide binding.




for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.

The living things are controlled completely by wheel shape thing

The hexmer-ring cannot be formed and not move on DNA (either 5¡¯ to 3¡¯ or 3¡¯ to 5¡¯direction) without binding NTP because the helicases are NTP-driven motor proteins.



Same with 1:20

Same with 27

Same with 27



And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the color of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.

A special structure over the above that with crystal structure

The membrane architecture is a lipid bilayer and proteins embedded in the bilayer. The structure of membrane looked like ¡°ice¡± or ¡°crystal¡± from cytoplasm toward outside.



Same with 1:9 and 1:11

Same with 16

Same with 16



And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings, like the noise of great waters

All activation are occurring in water

The ¡°space¡± inside of cell under the membrane called ¡°cytoplasm¡±. The entire cell including nucleus is full of water and also the enzyme-catalyzed reactions take place in aqueous solutions.



And there was a voice from the firmament that was over their heads, when they stood, and had let down their wings.

All activation are controlled by a signal system

The reactions of replication, transcription and translation are controlled by the molecular signals.













appearance of the bow

Light with water existing in the same space and same time

During these reactions the water-generated and energy-released in the same time



the day of rain

water formation

During these reactions the water-generated



a scroll

A roll- ship thing that contained series of information.

Human DNA molecule twines into ¡°rolls¡± of chromosomes, the information of genomic DNA is a huge ¡°book¡± formed many years ago not by humankind. The genome includes about 35 thousands genes (sentences).



he unrolled before me

Humankind cannot ¡°open¡± and read it directly.

Humankind cannot ¡°open¡± and read DNA directly.



on both sides

Two sides.

Two strands of DNA, one is up side another is down side.



were written words

Express information by unites.

Nucleotides, A, T, C, and G, or genes.



lament and mourning and woe

basic behaviors and emotions

Genomic DNA determine human basic behaviors and emotions.



eat this roll. take the roll as food. I eat it; as honey for sweetness

The roll- ship thing contained series of information can be eaten as food and contains sugar.

The DNA, a unique biological material, certainly can be eaten and contains sugar (pentose sugar), ¡°sweet¡± indeed.



 a strange speech and of an hard language

A special information system different from human languages.

A genomic DNA is a ¡°book¡±, the genes are the ¡°words or sentences¡± to be a chemical language, a special strange language.



Not to many people of a strange speech and of a hard language, whose words thou canst not understand.

Languages that cannot be understand by ancient people. 

Modern scientists use the scientific terminology, parameters and language to understand biological information on genomic DNA.



Surely, had I sent thee to them, they would have hearkened unto thee.

Some one would surely understand the mystery thing Ezekiel saw.

Modern scientists can understand DNA molecule structure and function as Ezekiel saw.



The examples above show us a light line that leading Darwin¡¯s theory toward the Bible. The direction he pointed out to people is just another pathway to the interpretation of the Bible. That is very different from the traditional ¡°theology¡± that interpretations of the Bible only with the ¡°spirit¡±, Darwin¡¯s system has been using ¡°material¡± exhibition of the part of the Bible was shown by God.  Obviously, the words in the Bible about the origin of humankind were truth that has been confirmed by the new function of Darwin¡¯s theory, since it accorded with historical facts. That milstone the terminus of Darwin¡¯s theory.


There are two worlds where we are feeling: one is the world inside our brain, called ¡°Spirit¡±. The religious just is limited methods and harvests on recognizing the unlimited ¡°Spiritual world¡±. Another is the world outside our spirit, called ¡°Nature¡±. The true science is the limited methods and harvests on the understanding of unlimited ¡°Natural world¡±.

 God show himself to us through the two worlds as the Bible described: ¡°Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse.¡± (KJV, Romans 1:19-20).

Dongsheng Zhang, 11-24-2006, in Cincinnati. dongshengzhang_1@yahoo.com


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